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Institute of Laparoscopic Surgery

Leparoscopic Surgery Training

Diabetes and Metabolic Syndrome

India is currently in the midst of two closely linked epidemics: obesity and type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes, which represents over ninety percent of all cases of diabetes, occurs when cells become insensitive to insulin, the hormone which regulates blood sugar levels. More than 80 percent of people suffering from type 2 diabetics are obese.


It is estimated that 190 million people worldwide have diabetes and that this will increase to 324 million by 2025. India leads the world in this epidemic of diabetes. The country currently has the highest number (50.8 million) of people suffering from diabetes. This number is expected to increase to 70-100 million by 2025 with 20% being in the urban setup.


Metabolic syndrome is an collection of many medical conditions — increased blood pressure, a high blood sugar levels, excess body fat (particularly around the waist) and abnormal cholesterol levels — that occur together, increasing the risk of developing diabetes, stroke and heart diseases.


Being overweight or obese increases your risk of myriad of health problems, including:


  • High blood pressure (hypertension) – this is a major risk factor for developing a serious cardiovascular disease
  • Type 2 diabetes
  • Gallstone disease
  • Infertility
  • Many types of cancer
  • Heart diseases
  • Stroke
  • Osteoarthritis – a condition that affects the joints
  • Depression
  • Sleep apnea – a condition that causes interrupted breathing during sleep. Excessive body fat increases the bulk of soft tissue in the neck, which can place a strain on the throat muscles leading to episodes of interrupted breathing during sleep; excess stomach fat can also lead to breathing difficulties, which can make OSA worse
  • Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease